Arthritis is a disease which causes inflammation (swelling) of joints.
It is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases that cause disability in elderly. Pain, swelling, and stiffness of joints are the common symptoms of arthritis.
There are around 100 different types of arthritis with their respective causes and treatment. The treatment of arthritis focuses on reducing pain and inflammation.
One interesting natural remedy for arthritis is red wine.
Red wine has this interesting but powerful antioxidant called resveratrol that can help relieve symptoms of arthritis and halt its progression.
The polyphenolic compounds present in red wine have an anti-inflammatory property which helps to reduce the painful symptoms of arthritis.
Resveratrol has been found to be joint protective in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
10 Awesome Benefits of Red wine in Arthritis
The phenolic compounds present in red wine have therapeutic potential for arthritis.
1. Red wine has anti-inflammatory property
Resveratrol, the most active ingredient of red wine has anti-inflammatory activity.
It can prevent osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis by decreasing the production of inflammatory mediators and modulating the immune response.
The release of an inflammatory mediator like granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM‒CSF)is inhibited which reduces symptoms of pain and swelling in patients who have arthritis.
Some studies suggest that resveratrol is a specific inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B and TNF‒alpha which initiates inflammation in arthritis patients.
What does this mean? The anti-inflammatory action of resveratrol in red wine reduces inflammation and also prevents progression of symptoms of arthritis.
2. Red wine is a natural antimicrobial agent
The polyphenols in red wine have broad-spectrum activity against bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringes, Bacillus sp., Klebsiella sp.
S. aureus is the leading causWine septic arthritis, and red wine has an anti-microbial action against S. aureus, thus making it an effective natural remedy for septic arthritis.
What does this mean? The polyphenolic compounds in red wine specifically inhibit S.aureus, the major causative agent of septic arthritis. Red wine can be an alternative to antibiotics used to treat the same.
3. Resveratrol in red wine can regulate immune responses in arthritis
Resveratrol has shown to modulate inflammatory arthritis in rodents by suppressing the immune responses, both cellular and humoral, thereby inhibiting the development of the disease.
Intake of red wine can reduce the intensity and severity of rheumatoid arthritis which is caused due to altered immune response in the patient.
Low levels of inflammatory cytokines and T helper cells were found in patients, showing arthritis protective effects.
What does this mean? Rheumatoid arthritis can be prevented by consumption of red wine as it modulates the immune response and alleviates the symptoms of the disease.
4. Red wine prevents cartilage damage and protects bones
Bone mineral density was studied by a group of scientists in individuals who consumed red wine.
It was found that red wine prevents bone loss in older men. Resveratrol prevents bone loss and promotes bone metabolism.
It stops the synthesis of vascular endothelial growth factor (a signal protein that stimulates the formation of blood vessels) that suppresses activation of kinases (phosphorylating enzyme) in osteoblasts (cells which produce bone protein). This is preventive for cartilage damage.
What does this mean? Red wine polyphenols prevent the progression of arthritis by inhibiting bone and cartilage loss. It can prove very useful in treating osteoarthritis.
5. Resveratrol has a chemopreventive action in rheumatoid arthritis
Resveratrol is a natural antioxidant that inhibits the excessive growth of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA‒FLS) .
RA‒FLS are specialized cell type present inside the synovial joints which are responsible for RA as it initiates inflammation that can lead to bone destruction.
The hyperplastic growth (increase in tissue that leads to cell proliferation) of RA‒FLS is a characteristic feature of rheumatoid arthritis. It inhibits proliferation and initiates apoptosis (death) of RA‒FLS.
Supplementation of resveratrol in the diet was found to be protective against rheumatoid arthritis as it reduces the amount of cytokine ( an inflammatory mediator) induced neutrophil (immune cell responsible for inflammation) chemoattractant (a chemical that attracts neutrophil) in the serum of the patient. A significant reduction in knee swelling was observed.
What does this mean? Resveratrol contained in red wine significantly reduces the pathological symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.
6. Red wine benefits in gout
Resveratrol has been found to be effective against gouty arthritis which is caused by monosodium urate crystal deposition thereby resulting in an increased amount of uric acid in the patient.
It inhibits articular inflammation (inflammation of joints) and downregulates serum uric acid. It can prove beneficial in the management of gouty arthritis as it can prevent recurrent acute attacks of gouty arthritis.
What does this mean? Resveratrol, a potent antioxidant can prevent attacks of chronic gouty arthritis by reducing the level of uric acid in patient’s serum. This is a preventive measure for managing gouty arthritis.
7. Red wine prevents disease progression in osteoarthritis:
Osteoarthritis is characterized by inflammation and bone loss. Resveratrol treatment has been shown to preserve the structure of articular cartilage (white tissue that covers the end of the bone) and subchondral bone (a growth plate present below articular cartilage) .
It also activates a protein called silent information regulator 2 type 1 which prevents the destruction of cartilage. This further inhibits the progression of the disease in the patient.
What does this mean? The major symptom of an osteoarthritis patient is a loss of bone and cartilage. Resveratrol not only inhibits this process but also prevents further bone deterioration.
8. Red wine improves metabolic health
Consumption of red wine in moderate amounts improves overall metabolism of the body. It lowers blood glucose levels.
It regulates body weight if taken in low amounts and maintains the glycemic index of the body.
Metabolic disorders can be managed by intake of red wine. Studies have shown that supplementation of red wine might be a useful nutritional approach to treating type 2 diabetes.
What does this mean? This suggests that red wine has overall health benefits. By regulating the metabolism of the body, it lowers the risk of developing arthritis.
9. Red wine consumption reduces cardiovascular risk
Studies have indicated that patients who have chronic inflammatory arthritis are at a high risk to be affected by cardiovascular events20.
Elderly patients with arthritis have a higher probability of developing atherosclerosis. It has been shown that inflammation plays an important role in the atherosclerotic process.
Rheumatoid arthritis increases cardiovascular disease risk by increasing oxidative stress and dysfunction of the endothelium (epithelium/ tissue that lines the interior surface of blood vessels).
The polyphenolic compounds present in red wine helps in reducing the development of heart diseases in healthy individuals.
Studies have shown that on the consumption of red wine the ratio of good cholesterol: bad cholesterol increased significantly. In patients with type 2, diabetes consumption of 150 ml/day of red wine decreased total cholesterol/High-density lipoprotein ratio.
What does this mean? This suggests that polyphenols of red wine have a significant role in lowering the risk of heart disease in arthritis.
10. Resveratrol aids in weight loss:
Obesity is a leading factor that causes osteoarthritis. Red wine helps in weight management.
Moderate intake of red wine can help in weight loss. Red wine polyphenols ameliorate the risk of obesity.
What does this mean? This means that red wine helps in maintaining as well as losing weight which is not only beneficial for managing arthritis but also other metabolic disorders.
Dosage of resveratrol and intake limit of red wine for arthritis
Resveratrol is a polyphenolic antioxidant that has diverse health benefits depending on the dose.
When taken in high concentration, it prevents cancer, and when taken in low amounts it prevents heart diseases.
Around 250‒500 mg resveratrol is safe for consumption.
The intake of red wine should be in moderation. The intake limit recommended per day is 4 ounces or 125 ml.
Consuming a high dose of red wine can cause toxicity in kidneys. Red wine in excess might show adverse reactions.
These include confusion, flushing, blackouts, seizures, diarrhoea, vomiting, trouble in walking, etc.
Long term use can have severe health consequences like dependence, cardiovascular disorders, liver diseases, pancreas problems, mental problems and certain types of cancer. Red wine consumption in moderate amounts is safe for consumption.
The pregnant and breastfeeding mothers must consult a doctor for the safety limits of consumption.
Patients suffering from porphyria and other blood-related problems must also avoid taking red wine in their diet.
Please consult a health practitioner before taking resveratrol supplements.
Red wine contains polyphenols and flavonoids which are beneficial for human health. The most active ingredient is a polyphenolic antioxidant, resveratrol.
It has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial and immunomodulatory effects which are useful in treating osteoarthritis, septic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis.
Red wine when consumed in moderation on a daily basis regulates metabolism thereby lowering the risk of arthritis.
It can prove to be a natural remedy and take over medications which are used to treat arthritis.
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